Disorganization schizophrenia (hebephrenic) is a type of schizophrenia. Disorganized schizophrenia used to be regarded as a subtype of schizophrenia, but this isn’t the case anymore.
In the United States, schizophrenia affects about one percent of the population and is a chronic and complex disorder of the brain.
Although it is no longer an official diagnosis, hebephrenic schizophrenia refers to a group of symptoms that occurs as a result of disorganized thinking.
What is disorganized (hebephrenic) schizophrenia?
Those with hebephrenic schizophrenia or disorganization schizophrenia have symptoms such as:
- Disorganized thinking
- Unusual speech patterns
- Flat affect
- Feelings that aren’t appropriate in a given situation
- Incongruent facial expressions
- An inability to perform everyday tasks
As opposed to having hallucinations or delusions, hebephrenic individuals have disorganized behavior and speech.
Previously considered a diagnosis, hebephrenic schizophrenia is no longer considered an official diagnosis in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 5 (DSM-5), the authoritative manual used by psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals.
Although the term is no longer considered a diagnosis in a manual used by healthcare professionals to classify diseases, it is still classified as a diagnosis in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).
Before now, mental health professionals were using a series of subtypes to describe one overarching diagnosis.
What are the possible symptoms of schizophrenia?
The following schizophrenia symptoms may be associated with:
- Hallucinations: Feeling, hearing, or seeing things that don’t exist
- Delusions: A belief or suspicion not supported by evidence even if other people hold it
- Negative symptoms: The person is emotionally flat, with no relationships, and their voices sound dull or disconnected
- Disorganized thinking or cognitive issues: Lack of insight, difficulty completing tasks
- Abnormal behavior: Being careless with one’s appearance, laughing at oneself, or self-neglecting
Schizophrenia patients who are described as disorganized typically do not have delusions or hallucinations, but they usually do have other symptoms in addition to disorganized thinking and negative symptoms.
What is the diagnosis of disorganized schizophrenia?
Disorganized schizophrenia is hard to diagnose. It cannot be diagnosed by a lab test or physical exam.
Symptoms must be observed for at least six months before the illness can be diagnosed. Other medical conditions must be ruled out, including a brain tumor, other mental disorders, substance-induced psychosis, and other conditions.
Schizophrenia is diagnosed when a person consistently exhibits at least two of the following symptoms:
- Disorganized behavior
- Negative symptoms
Disorganized schizophrenia is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Flat affect
- Speech disturbances
- Disorganized thinking
- inappropriate emotions
- Illogical facial expressions
- The inability to perform daily tasks
A diagnosis can only be made once these related conditions have been ruled out:
- Schizoaffective disorder
- Bipolar disorder
- Schizophreniform disorder
- Delusional disorder
- Substance use
What causes disorganization schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia has no known cause. A number of contributing factors have been identified by researchers:
- Biological factors
- Environmental factors
- Substance use
Schizophrenia is thought to be caused by a combination of many of these factors. It is also believed that some types of schizophrenia are caused by different factors.
How common are schizophrenia risk factors?
Schizophrenia has many risk factors and causes, as it is not known what causes it.
Individuals who have risk factors for a disease or condition are not guaranteed to get that disease or condition. They are at greater risk for developing the condition.
Schizophrenia can be caused by:
- Substance use
The cause of schizophrenia isn’t known, but genetics and the environment are believed to interact. More than six times as likely as individuals without schizophrenia to go on to develop it are those with a direct relative with schizophrenia, as a parent or sibling.
Teens who use mind-altering drugs may be at greater risk of developing schizophrenia. The risk is higher for younger individuals and individuals who use substances more frequently.
An increased risk of schizophrenia has been linked to exposure to viruses in utero, particularly in the first and second trimesters.
What is the treatment for schizophrenia?
Disorganization schizophrenia treatment goals include:
- Targeting symptoms
- Preventing relapse
- Making the individual more adaptive so they can be a part of their community
Both medications and other treatments are usually used to accomplish this.
Disorganization schizophrenia Treatment options
The following treatments are available:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
- Individual therapy
- Group therapy
- Pharmacological therapy
- The first-line treatment for schizophrenia is an antipsychotic medication
- Assertive community treatment
- Team-based multidisciplinary therapy
- Assist in reducing hospitalizations and homelessness
Some patients may need a combination of medications depending on their specific symptoms. In many instances, both medicine and therapy are used together because support systems make it more likely for people to take their medication on time.
Psychotherapy and social support may also include job training and social skills training.
CBT can provide support and help address disorganized thinking and behaviors, even though there are no specific treatments for hebephrenic schizophrenia.
How does schizophrenia affect people?
Chronic illnesses like schizophrenia cannot be cured. These symptoms can be managed with the use of treatments, and staying on track with your treatment plan can help.
There may be an increased risk of financial, social, and health problems with schizophrenia because:
- Nutritionally deficient, unbalanced diet
- Smoking and substance abuse are more likely to occur together
- Health care access is limited
- The risk of attempting and thinking about suicide is higher
- An increased risk of adverse reactions to the therapy
- More than half of all people with schizophrenia suffer from other mental illnesses as well
Those diagnosed with this disorder can face a higher risk of death when all of these factors are combined.
Disorganization schizophrenia symptoms can be managed by therapeutic interventions including medication, behavioral treatment, and social support. It may be necessary to change treatment if the side effects of the medication change or if the symptoms change.
A doctor can adjust or change a medication if it’s causing side effects.
Because hebephrenic schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in behavior and emotions, negative symptoms may be associated with higher risks. For management, it is crucial to have a comprehensive treatment plan alongside plentiful social support.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that is chronic, complex, and long-term. The DSM-5 does not recognize hebephrenic schizophrenia as a separate diagnosis, but the symptoms of the illness still exist.
Although schizophrenia is a serious health problem, many treatments can help manage symptoms and improve the quality of life for sufferers.