The terms “mental health” and “behavioral health” relate to the cognitive, behavioral and emotional well-being of people. It all comes down to how individuals think, feel and act. The phrase “mental health” is occasionally used to refer to the absence of a mental disorder.
Mental health may have a negative impact on everyday life, relationships and physical health.
However, this connection also occurs in another way. Mental health issues may be caused by a variety of reasons, including personal circumstances, interpersonal relationships and physical conditions.
Taking care of one’s mental health may help them maintain their capacity to enjoy life. To do so, you must strike a balance between your daily activities, obligations and attempts to improve your psychological resilience.
Stress, sadness and anxiety may all have an impact on a person’s mental health and disturb their daily routine.
Despite the widespread usage of the phrase “mental health,” many illnesses that physicians classify as psychological disorders have physical origins.
In this article, we define mental health and mental illness. We also go through the most prevalent mental illnesses, their early warning signals, and how to treat them.
What is mental health?
The World Health Organization (WHO) states:
“Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”
According to the WHO, mental health is “more than simply the absence of mental illnesses or disabilities.” Peak mental health entails not only avoiding active mental illnesses but also maintaining overall well-being and happiness.
They also stress the need of maintaining and repairing mental health on an individual level, as well as in many groups and cultures across the globe.
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, almost one in every five people in the United States suffers from mental illness each year.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), an estimated 11.2 million people in the United States, or approximately 4.5 percent of adults, had a serious psychiatric illness in 2017.
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Risk factors for mental health conditions
Everyone is at risk of having a mental health problem, regardless of age, gender, income or ethnicity. Mental disorders are one of the major causes of disability in the United States and most of the industrialized world.
A person’s mental health may be influenced by social and socioeconomic situations, biological variables and lifestyle choices. A significant percentage of individuals who have a mental health problem, also have several conditions at the same time.
It’s essential to remember that good mental health is dependent on a delicate balance of different factors, and that many aspects of life and the larger environment may all contribute to mental illness.
The following things may impact negatively on your mental health.
Constant social and economic pressure
Mental health problems are more likely among those who have low financial resources or who belong to a disadvantaged or persecuted ethnic group.
According to a 2015 research, a survey of 903 Iranian households found that poverty and living on the fringes of a major city are among the socioeconomic factors of mental illness.
The researchers also addressed the difference in the availability and quality of mental health care for different populations in terms of changeable and nonmodifiable factors, which may alter over time.
The following are modifiable causes for mental health disorders:
- Socioeconomic conditions
- Person’s level of social involvement
- Housing quality
The following are non-modifiable factors:
Gender is included as both a controllable and nonmodifiable component in the research. The female gender raised the likelihood of poor mental health by 3.96 times, according to the study.
The research also found that those with a “low economic status” had the greatest rates of mental health problems.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, genetic family history may raise the risk of mental health problems because specific genes and gene variations put people at greater risk.
However, several other factors contribute to the development of these diseases.
Having a gene linked to a mental health problem, such as depression or schizophrenia, does not mean that you will acquire the illness. People without linked genes or a family history of mental disease may also suffer from mental illness.
Stress, sadness, and anxiety are all mental health disorders that may emerge as a result of underlying, life-altering physical health issues including cancer, diabetes and chronic pain.
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Common mental health disorders
The following are the most common types of mental disorders:
According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, anxiety disorder is a severe type of mental illness.
People who suffer from these disorders experience intense dread or anxiety in response to certain items or circumstances. The majority of individuals who suffer from anxiety disorders will attempt to avoid being exposed to whatever it is that makes them anxious.
Anxiety disorders include the following:
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as excessive worry that interferes with daily life.
People may also suffer physical symptoms, such as:
- Tense muscles
- Interrupted sleep
Anxiety symptoms in individuals with GAD may not always need a particular cause.
They may have extreme anxiety when confronted with basic tasks that may not pose a direct threat, such as doing housework or maintaining appointments. A person with GAD may experience anxiety without any apparent cause.
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Panic episodes, which include abrupt, overpowering fear or a feeling of impending catastrophe and death, occur frequently in people with a panic disorder.
There are many types of phobias:
- Simple phobias are characterized by an exaggerated fear of particular items, situations, or animals. A typical example is a phobia of spiders.
- Social phobia is a fear of being judged by others. It is sometimes referred to as social anxiety. People who suffer from social phobia typically limit their exposure to social situations.
- Agoraphobia is the dread of being trapped in a position where getting out is difficult, such as an elevator or a moving train. Many individuals mistake this phobia for a fear of the outdoors.
Phobias are very personal and physicians aren’t familiar with all of them. There may be hundreds of phobias, and what one person considers odd may be a serious issue that consumes their everyday lives for another.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
After experiencing or witnessing a very stressful or traumatic incident, PTSD may develop.
The individual believes that their or other people’s lives seem to be in danger during this kind of occurrence. They may be scared or believe they have no control over what is going on.
Trauma and terror feelings may then lead to PTSD.
Mood disorders are sometimes known as affective disorders or depressive disorders.
People with these illnesses experience significant swings in mood, with mania (a time of high energy and elation) or depression (a period of low energy and elation) being the most common. Mood disorders include the following:
- Major depression: Major depression is characterized by a persistently poor mood and a loss of interest in previously liked activities and events. They may be unhappy for extended periods of time or be very sad.
- Bipolar disorder: Bipolar illness causes unexpected fluctuations in a person’s mood, energy level, degree of activity, and capacity to go on with everyday activities. Manic periods are characterized by high mood, while depressed phases are characterized by low mood.
- Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): This form of severe depression is triggered by reduced daylight factors throughout the autumn, winter and early spring months. It’s most prevalent in nations that aren’t close to the equator.
Authorities in the field of mental health are still debating whether schizophrenia is a single disease or a collection of disorders. It’s a complicated situation.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, schizophrenia symptoms usually appear between the ages of 16 and 30. The person’s ideas may seem fragmented, and they may find it difficult to comprehend information.
Schizophrenia manifests itself in both bad and good ways. Delusions, thinking disorders, and hallucinations are all positive signs. Withdrawal, a lack of drive, and a flat or unsuitable mood are all negative effects.
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There is no reliable physical test or scan that can determine whether or not someone has acquired a mental disorder. However, the following are potential signs of a mental health problem that people should be aware of:
- Avoiding contact with friends, family and coworkers
- Avoiding activities that they would otherwise like.
- Too much or too little sleep
- Consuming too much or little food
- Feeling despondent
- Having low energy levels regularly
- Using mood-altering drugs such as alcohol and nicotine on a more regular basis
- Expressing negative feelings
- Being confused
- Being unable to do everyday activities such as going to work or preparing a meal
- persistent thoughts or recollections that resurface frequently
- Considering harming oneself or others physically
- Recognizing voices
- Having delusions
Mental health treatment
There are many techniques to deal with mental health issues. Treatment is extremely personalized, and what works for one person may not work for the next.
Some methods or treatments work better when used in combination with others. At different points in their lives, a person with a persistent mental illness may select from a variety of choices.
The person must engage closely with a doctor who can assist them in identifying their requirements and providing appropriate therapy.
The following are some examples of treatments:
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Psychotherapy or talking therapies
This kind of therapy uses a psychological approach to treating mental diseases. Examples include cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure treatment, and dialectical behavior therapy.
This kind of therapy is provided by psychiatrists, psychologists, psychotherapists and certain primary care doctors.
It may help individuals identify the source of their mental illness and begin to work on more healthy thinking patterns that support daily life and decrease the risk of isolation and self-harm.
Antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics are among the medicines given to certain individuals.
While these medicines cannot cure mental illnesses, they may help a person improve their symptoms and continue social engagement and a regular schedule while they work on their mental health.
Some of these drugs operate by increasing the body’s absorption of feel-good chemicals from the brain such as serotonin. Other medicines either increase the total amounts of these compounds or stop them from degrading or being destroyed.
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A person dealing with mental health issues will almost always need to make lifestyle adjustments to be well.
Reducing alcohol use, sleeping more, and eating a well-balanced, healthy diet are examples of such improvements. People may need to take time from work or address personal relationship problems that are negatively impacting their mental health.
Relaxation methods such as deep breathing, meditation and mindfulness may be beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or depression.
Having a support network, whether via self-help groups or close friends and family, is extremely important for mental illness rehabilitation.