Depression: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Girl in depression

What is depression?

Depression is a mood and mental disorder. Nowadays it becomes a more common and serious mental health problem that affects the person’s way of thinking, feels and other daily activities including eating, working, loss of interest and so on.

It is more than the state of sad feelings and lack of work and energy in other activities. It is a mental health condition and requires proper treatment and if it is left untreated it can be prolonged and will be devastating.

 According to World Health Organization (WHO):

  • Depression is a mental disorder
  • Globally 264 Million People are being affected
  • Women are mostly affected
  • Any age of person can be affected

Related: Mild, Moderate and Severe Depression Symptoms

5 Common types of depression

When we think or circulate about the term “depression”, it often divides into one or two common types- either Clinical or regular, which is most common as many people experience it in their life.

1. Major depressive disorder (MDD)

The term clinical depression refers to the major depressive disorder (MDD) known as a mood disorder expressed by the following key features:

If someone experiences such type of symptoms for longer than of two-week time period, so he might be diagnosed with MDD (clinical depression)

2. Persistent depressive disorder (PDD)

Persistent depressive disorder known as dysthymia and refer to a long-term form of (chronic) depression as the person will lose interest in daily activities, hopelessness feel and worthlessness.

The timeline of PDD can be last for years and the person will find it challenging to beat up persistent depressive disorder. It can rise up to mild, moderate, or can be too severe conditions.

The symptom of Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) includes:

  • Feeling Sad (less Pleasure)
  • Guilty Feeling
  • Increase in the anger
  • Worthlessness feel
  • Fatigue (less energy)

“1.5% of adults in the United States (US) had persistent depressive Disorder and the percentage of women is more than 1% in one year”


Read: Biology of Depression

3. Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is also a mood disorder known as mania (abnormally elevated mood) as it can mild or can be extreme causing the risk of suicidal thoughts 15 times greater.

Dipolar Disorder includes:

4. Postpartum depression (PPD)

Pregnancy also plays a vital role in affecting or changing women’s moods. Postpartum depression occurs during pregnancy or during childbirth.

PDD symptoms

  • Sadness
  • Changing of mood
  • Hopeless or worthless feeling
  • Less interest in the activities
  • Suicidal thoughts

5. Premenstrual dysphonic disorder (PMDD)

PMDD is a serious health problem and causes irritability, anxiety, and or females get depressed as it is a condition mostly similar to premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

PMDD symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Sad feeling (Hopeless)
  • Anxiety
  • Stress

Related: 4 Major Ways Depression Effects on Brain

Which type of depression is most common in people?

Globally 6 out of 1 woman and 8 out of 1 man experience depression one time in their life and untreated disorder can cause long-term health complications.

Here are types that are most common in the United States (US):

  1. Persistent depressive Disorder (PDD)
  2. Major depression
  3. Bipolar disorder

Related: Psychotic Depression

Symptoms of depression

The symptoms depend on the person as they can experience different depression in men, women, children and depression in teens.

The signs of depression can be mild, moderate, and can be severe depending upon its type.

Feeling symptoms

People with the problem feel like:

  • Sad
  • Unhappy
  • Guilty
  • Lack of confidence
  • Disappoint

Thoughts symptoms

  • Hopelessness
  • Worthlessness
  • Lack of pleasure in my life
  • Why I am here
  • Suicidal thoughts

Behavior symptoms

  • Increase in the anger
  • Lack of other as well as enjoyable activities
  • More consumption of alcohol and segregate

Physical symptoms

  • Too much tired
  • Sickness
  • Headaches at an extreme level
  • Depression keeps awake
  • Weight loss

Some people say that “Depression keeping me awake and it keeping from me working”.

Main cause of depression

There are multiple causes to become a depressive person and it depends upon a person’s situation and surroundings. Women also suffer from depression during pregnancy.

A research team finds out that this disease also transfers in genes if a parent is depressed then their children also get affected. One of the main causes includes:


Physical, emotional, and family abuse to a person can also lead to the risk of mental illness.


People with higher ages have more chances of having it than at low ages.

Death or lose

Sadness after the death of some beloved one or the loss of a close or childhood friend can also cause a mental disorder.

Related: Double Depression Disorder

Depression genetic

Family gene history having depression background in it, maybe in the increase in the risk of getting affected to their children as due to transfer of genes from them to become depressed kids.

Personal problems

Personal problems such as social problems and mental illness or family problems can also be a cause of depression.

Depression Photo

Major treatment of depressive disorder

First of all, all you need is diagnoses that cause many side effects, and living with it is quite challenging and difficult, as it may feel like you’ll never get out from the dark shadow of this disease.

But don’t worry, It can be cured with treatment which can help you get better and improve your lifestyle. The mixture of combined medical therapy, lifestyle therapy:

Depression medication

Medications are the most effective treatment for depression. Sometimes medication cannot completely be effective.

As it can give the patient a secure relief from some of the symptoms with medicine, but it cannot be the treatment of the depression for long-term recovery (solution).

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

SSRI is an antidepressant and works to help in the breakdown of Serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is a chemical found in the brain that is responsible for mood help improve mood and other sleep habits.

Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants can help in the case when other drugs haven’t helped, But, the intake of drugs as a medicine can also cause some side effects including an increase in weight.

Side effects of the medications

SSRIs and other medications can have side effects, A person might experience:

  • Low Blood sugar
  • Nausea
  • Weight loss


Psychotherapy is a mental health treatment by talking with the psychiatrist and other health providers. As the psychiatrist helps you to take control of your lifestyle and to change your mood.

In some types of depression, psychological therapy is taken as first-line treatment, sometimes the combined mixture of psychological therapy and medication responds better.

CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy are considering two main types of psychological therapy for depression.

Interpersonal therapy helps to identify:

  • Emotional problem
  • Mood

Related: How to Get Out of a Depressive Episode

Lifestyle changing

Lifestyle also plays a vital role in the treatment of it. With the lifestyle changes, you might have to take other treatments as it will help in removing the depression.


Regular exercise may be an effective treatment of depression as it boosts serotonin, endorphins and makes the person feel better, and increase the growth of the new brain cells. The depressed patient may have a 30 to 60 min exercise on a regular basis.


Sleep is also having in causing and also helps in the prevention and treatment of depression. So, Ensure that you get enough sleep on a regular basis which helps to relax your brain and your body. People having depression should aim for sleep of almost 7 to 9 hours each day.


One of the factors that may a part to contribute in prevention of depression is nutrition. A lack of good nutrition can be a cause of many diseases and put in the risk of having it.

So, a balanced diet can increase energy and swing the mood.

Must read: How to Help Someone with Depression


According to Doctors, there are not sure preventions that help to overcome depression. But don’t worry, we provided some of the strategies which may decrease the risk, so have a look:

  • Try to Control stress
  • Enjoy life with friends
  • Get touch to doctor
  • Take care of yourself (don’t be careless)

How to test depression?

There is a quiz base depression online test developed by Ivan Goldberg, who is a renowned psychiatrist.


The depression test is given on the website and the result will be published and to conclude depression symptoms in women, men and teens.

Relation between depression and anxiety

You can experience both of them at the same time. There is an estimate that approximately 45 percent of people with one mental health issue have at least two mental disorders. According to one study, 50% of people who have anxiety or depression will suffer the other disorder.

Symptoms and treatments of these two mental issues may be similar, though each has its own unique causes. More information is available on this website, including management suggestions, what to expect from a psychiatrist, and how to treat depression and anxiety.

Must read: COVID-19 and Depression

What symptoms are present in each condition?

Depression and anxiety have some symptoms in common including sleep problems, difficulty concentrating and irritability. There are multiple key differences that help to differentiate them.

Depression SymptomsAnxiety Symptoms
Decreased EnergyFeeling drained quickly
Chronic FatiguePanic
Feeling sluggish a lotDread
Unable to concentrate, make decisions, or recallFear or worry that is difficult to control
Attempts to commit suicideFeeling of irritability or restlessness
Suicidal or death bed thoughtsRestless, unsatisfying sleep and difficulties in falling asleep or insomnia
Experiencing feelings of guilt, worthless or helplessGrinding teeth
Restlessness, irritability or intense angerRacing heart
Feeling pessimistic or hopelessMuscle tension
Oversleeping or insomniaDifficulties with recall and concentration
A loss of interest in all activities and hobbies 
Feelings of loneliness, emptiness, sadness, etc. 
Pain, cramping, aches, or other symptoms for no apparent reason 
A change in weight or appetite 

Depression with psychosis

It is possible for persons suffering from major depression to also suffer from a mental disorder known as psychosis. Depressive psychosis occurs when these two conditions occur simultaneously.

The symptoms of depression psychosis include seeing, hearing, believing, or smelling things that aren’t there. It is possible for sufferers to feel sad, hopeless, and irritable as well.

Both of these conditions are particularly dangerous when combined. Because of the delusions, they experience with depressive psychosis, they may take unusual risks or have thoughts of suicide.

There is no clear cause or reason why these conditions can occur together, but treatments can successfully ease symptoms. The most common medications are ECT and benzodiazepines.

It is important to be aware of early symptoms by knowing the risk factors and possible causes.

Depression is not grief/bereavement

When a loved one dies, a job is lost or a relationship ends, these can be difficult experiences for a person. It is normal to feel sad or grieved when such situations occur. The loss of a loved one may leave people feeling “depressed.”

A person suffering from depression is not necessarily sad. Each grieving process is unique and natural, but some of its characteristics are similar to those of depression as well. Grief and depression can both cause intense sadness and withdrawal. Their differences are also significant.

  • Grief consists of painful feelings that come in waves, frequently interlaced with positive memories of the deceased. For most of two weeks, major depressives experience low moods and/or reduced interest (pleasure).
  • During grief, self-esteem usually remains intact. People with major depression often feel worthless and self-hatred.
  • If one thinks of or fantasizes about “joining” the dead, there is a possibility that thoughts of death may surface. A person with major depression considers taking their own life because they feel worthless or undeserving of life or because they cannot cope with the pain of depression.

People may suffer from both grief and depression if they have lost a loved one, lost their job, suffered a physical assault or been a victim of a major catastrophe. Grief is more intense and lasts longer when depression co-occurs with grief. 

It is important to distinguish between grief and depression so that people can receive the proper support, help or treatment.

Our verdict

Coping with depression is not an easy job. If a person suffering from it, then don’t worry, there are many sources of treatment. The problem is that it is critical to stick with the treatment (medication) plan and the therapy session because people lose motivation.

If the person stops taking his/her medications, so the risk of entering into the severe condition may increase. So, just call the Doctor or mental health services near to you to get control over it.


Depression is most common in women than in men and around 20% of women experience this disease once in their life.

According to some research:

Biological, hormonal, and life cycles unique to women may play a part in linking higher rates in women. The researchers also showed that the hormone of women affects their mood and emotions.

No, it is almost not possible due to lack of sleep only but it can also cause some other disease or illness.

It depends upon the treatment as an untreated patient can last for a prolonged time. But, the timeline of this disease also depends upon its type as major depression remains a period of time.

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